DEVELOPMENT OF AIRCRAFT WINDSHIELDS TO RESIST IMPACT WITH BIRDS IN FLIGHT PART I COLLISION OF BIRDS WITH AIRCRAFT IN SCHEDULED COMMERCIAL OPERATIONS IN THE CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES 470048
This report covers the analysis of 473 records of collision of birds with aircraft in scheduled operations from a period previous to 1942 through 1946. Most of the reported collisions occurred in the Continental United States, but some data are given for Canada and Central and South America.
The data show that a bird collision on scheduled aircraft occurs each 759,000 miles of operation, which in 1946 corresponded to an average period of 0.89 days.
The type of bird most commonly struck by aircraft is the duck. Gulls and buzzards also are frequently hit in more limited geographical locations. All birds are struck most frequently during migratory seasons, and at low elevations above ground.
More than one-fourth of all recorded bird strikes occur on the airplane windshield, of which about one-third result in severe damage. Approximately one-fourth of all strikes result in severe local damage to some portion of the aircraft structure.
Citation: Kangas, P. and Pigman, G., "DEVELOPMENT OF AIRCRAFT WINDSHIELDS TO RESIST IMPACT WITH BIRDS IN FLIGHT PART I COLLISION OF BIRDS WITH AIRCRAFT IN SCHEDULED COMMERCIAL OPERATIONS IN THE CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES," SAE Technical Paper 470048, 1947, https://doi.org/10.4271/470048. Download Citation
Pell Kangas, George L. Pigman
Aircraft Development Division, Technical Development Service April, 1947
CIVIL AERONAUTICS ADMINISTRATION TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT SERVICE