some development problems with
Large Cryogenic Propellant Systems
HEAT TRANSFER causes loading and starting design problems in large missile systems powered by cryogenic propellants. This manifests itself during loading as effective density variation, violent surface conditions, boiloff, and ice formation — problems which may be solved by insulating the tank. During starting it causes overheating and caviation — effects which may be reduced by recirculators and subcooled charge injections.
The study described in this paper centers around liquid oxygen and its variations in heat flux rate, which affect liquid density, surface condition, and replenishing requirements. The problem areas are made apparent by consideration of a hypothetical missile system.*