Fully instrumented automobile collision experiments, with anthropometric dummies taking the place of motorists, provide scientific data not otherwise obtainable. An engineering analysis of the physical factors relating to three experimental car-to-ear side impacts at 30 mph is presented. The instrumentation, equipment, facilities, and operational procedures used to obtain this information are briefly described.
Specific data include position-time sequences of occupants and vehicles during and following impact, their linear, rotational and vectorial deceleration and acceleration patterns; the colliding vehicles' interaction as well as the interaction of occupants with vehicle interiors, as quantified by force-time and kinematic behavior patterns with resulting inferred injuries.
Three fully instrumented automobile collisions of the intersection type were conducted. Anthropometric dummies were used to simulate motorists to determine their kinetic and dynamic responses and to study the causes of injuries from collisions. The protective aspects during collision of a safety belt worn by motorists are demonstrated.
These right angle intersection-type collisions were conducted at 30 mph, differing from each other only in the position of contact as shown diagrammatically. The car, when struck at its side, rolled over. Both cars rolled over from the center side impact. Neither car rolled over from the rear-side impact, but the “driver” of the struck car was ejected. Although the collision event lasted four seconds, the highest impact forces were recorded during the first quarter-second.
Photographic, electronic mechanical and physiological instrumentation systems provided the basis for a comprehensive engineering evaluation of related physical factors. A comparison of the deceleration values of corresponding curves for the three positions of the side impact shown provides a brief interpretation of the influence the position of impact has on vehicles and their motorists.