This paper discusses the art of cold-forming metal parts from coiled wire. It treats fundamentals of part design and also describes the kind of parts produced on the various types of cold-forming machines -- from simple one-die headers to the more versatile six-die cold formers. Such topics as material, heading, extrusion, corner design, part symmetry, and tolerances are discussed, plus many other subjects that should be considered by designers and users of parts.
The author also explains how modern multistation cold formers work, and describes the types of forming operations that produce complex metal shapes. Some fundamentals of die design and sound forming practices are discussed.