A Preliminary Study of Spacecraft for Manned Mars Orbiting and Landing Missions 640226
Results are presented of a preliminary study into the major factors which affect the design of spacecraft for manned explorations of Mars. Two basic manned missions are considered, Mars orbiting and Mars landing. For the latter, two modes are considered, Mars orbital rendezvous with landing to be accomplished by an excursion vehicle detached from the parent orbiting spacecraft, and direct landing in which the entire spacecraft is landed on Mars. System weights are presented for these modes in terms of number of men in the crew, trip time, and stay time on Mars. Considerations are made of the types of life support and propulsion systems used. Major problem areas are identified.