This paper presents newly discovered principles concerning human factors in emergency evacuation of aircraft following survivable accidents.
A comprehensive summary and evaluation of all known emergency evacuation tests through December 1963 is presented.
Human factors data resulting from tests conducted between July 1963 and February 1964 in CARI's 132,000 gal indoor ditching pool, under extreme conditions of lighting, and at Lake Tenkiller in eastern Oklahoma are presented. Also, land tests were conducted using new escape devices, including the “Telescape” device.
Lack of familiarity with emergency equipment on the part of the crew, plus certain equipment design defects, doubled the escape times, and in certain instances resulted in unsuccessful escapes. Designs enabling a minimum escape time of 90 sec are recommended for future civil aircraft.
The results indicate the desirability of instituting changes in crew emergency evacuation training and in passenger briefing practices. Recommendations for improved personal survival equipment and for 25 g seats incorporating impact protection mechanisms are made.