Human Tolerance to Impact - Basis for Safety Design 650171
Fundamental principles of crash safety are discussed from a qualitative and quantitative engineering viewpoint. Categories of impact injury, together with the passenger compartment injury-producing components, are presented. Techniques used for establishing measurable parameters of injury utilizing live anesthetized animals, cadavers, human volunteers, and anthropomorphic dummies are outlined. Several types of experimental impact devices are evaluated with limitations and advantages of each listed. Human impact tolerance levels based on measurable physical quantities, such as force or acceleration, are recommended with values given for forehead impact.