The challenge of change in technology is taxing the ingenuity of contractors and managers, forcing them to use all the modern techniques available to them.
The first section of this paper examines excavating with a scraper. It discusses planned replacement of equipment, preventive maintenance, selection of the correct hauling unit, analysis of operation efficiency, and over pushing.
The second portion introduces space age mathematics to the excavating operation. By use of the computer, it is possible to simulate the haul characteristics of various types and makes of equipment, and the drill and blast requirements of rock projects. A geological table of basic igneous and sedimentary rocks is presented, as are drill production and explosive data.