1968-02-01

Human and Visual Factors Considerations for the Design of Automotive Periscopic Rear Vision Systems 680404

The success with which vehicle operators are able to utilize periscopic rear-viewing optical systems may well depend upon the extent to which the optical scientists, who are designing such systems, and the automotive engineers and automotive stylists, with whom they are working, consider the physiological and perceptual capabilities in performing the driving task as we know it today. This paper discusses where the operator's eyes are located in the vehicle, his visual capabilities, and how he utilizes them under today's driving conditions. These factors are then related to periscopic design and engineering.
Also discussed are the advantages and disadvantages inherent in the location of the periscopic system in relation to the location of the vehicle operator's eyes. Considerable emphasis is placed upon the limited visual capabilities of the driver over the age of 50 who must wear bifocal or tri-focal lenses in his everyday activities, and who comprises over 28% of the driving population in the United States. The ranges of clear vision through such lenses and the size of the field of view through his spectacle lenses available for viewing periscopic and other rear-viewing systems are discussed.
Part II - Some unconventional and advanced techniques for bringing information pertaining to the driver's environment with particular emphasis to that which lies behind the vehicle have proved quite successful, but have distinct styling implications and some performance trade-offs. Cylindrical optics have proved to be the most effective means of achieving remote image reception and transmission for motor vehicle rear-vision systems. The practical application of such concepts offers possible solutions to problems relating to visual input for the driving task.

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