Static Deformation and Volume Changes in the Human Skull 680782
Three human male cadaver heads were statically loaded along anteroposterior, posterioanterior, side to side, and vertex to base lines of action, while simultaneously measuring skull deflections at four or five locations and intracranial volume changes. Volume changes due to loading along the long (A-P) axis were small and either increased or decreased, while loads transverse to the A-P axis decreased the volume. Transverse loads produced volume changes on the order of 10 times larger than those due to A-P forces. Two skulls loaded to fracture in the A-P direction, failed at 1150 and 2200 lb, respectively, into the right orbit. These magnitudes and linear fracture direction correspond to four fractures produced by impact to the frontal bone of intact cadavers in previous work.