Interface Formation, Adhesion, and Ion Plating 690647
The surface condition and type of interface which is formed determines the adhesion which can be obtained in a film-substrate couple. Ways to control the surface condition and allow the formation of desirable types of interfaces before, during, and after the deposition of a coating are briefly discussed. The use of sputter cleaning as a surface preparation technique, and “ion plating” as a means of increasing adhesion by increasing the energetics of the deposition process are stressed. In the ion plating process, the surface to be coated is subjected to a high energy ion bombardment before and during the actual deposition. The principal benefits obtained by this process are the ability to: sputter clean the surface and maintain it “clean” until the first monolayer of film material is formed; provide a high energy flux to the substrate surface thus enhancing diffusion, chemical reaction, and the like; alter the surface and interfacial structure and thus change the interaction mechanisms and rates. Specific examples of the use of the ion plating technique to enhance adhesion, corrosion protection, and so forth, are presented.