The transport of increasing amounts of Army fissile and radioactive materials in the United States is presenting many technical problems because of the hazards associated with their movement. It is essential that criteria, guidance, and performance standards be established for transportation to facilitate safety during movement of these materials by all modes.The basic considerations in the transportation of fissile and radioactive materials are that they may present hazards to the health and safety of the transportation workers, passengers, people along the right-of-way, and the general public. Complying with all countries' regulations will provide for the control of these potential hazards by considering three basic factors: relative hazard potential of these items or materials, packaging performance standards, and the transportation environment expected. These regulations will be used during the research, development, test, and evaluation stages to meet the requirements for normal conditions of transportation and also on the environmental conditions that they might encounter during an accident. Packages and containers for hazardous materials will be designed and constructed to insure safety during transportation by providing adequate containment, lifting devices, tiedown devices, blocking, bracing, and slinging and structural requirements. Also, criticality and shielding and heat decay will be considered if fissile and large quantities of radioactive materials are to be transported. Adequate procedures will be provided to assure that the determination and control required by these regulations are accomplished. Results from accidents, possible effects following release of radionuclides, and some suggestions for reducing the probability of an accident are discussed. Definitions, significant and extensive changes to federal regulatory agencies regulations, and health physics aspects of radiation control are thoroughly explored. Future plans for improving safety during transportation are proposed.