Brake linings and pads are among the most critical components in an automobile and therefore testing to determine their properties and performance is of great importance. The types of tests employed are described and the purpose of each is discussed. Functional testing is performed on either dynamometers or vehicles. Characteristics of the dynamometer and vehicle are discussed as well as the correlation between results obtained from each. The state-of-the-art in friction material testing is reviewed. Areas of possible future significant advancement exist in better correlation of vehicle and dynamometer results and development of a research dynamometer.