Economic and Design Considerations in Deriving a Universal Space Vehicle Complementing the Space Shuttle 700763
The design requirements of an Orbit-to-Orbit Shuttle (OOS) are dictated by both performance and interface considerations with other elements of the Space Transportation System.
In order to achieve a stage that has universal application, all design requirements must be carefully evaluated. A stage designed to accommodate the lunar landing requirements has marginal capability for performing the unmanned high-energy earth orbital missions, as the incorporation of interface and kit provisions have a tendency to degrade the stage mass fraction.
The early incorporation of a high-mass fraction OOS to phase-in with the development of the Space Shuttle will result in substantial savings in the national space program.