Human volunteers were subjected to static and dynamic environments which produced noninjurious neck responses for neck extension and flexion. Cadavers were used to extend this data into the injury region. Analysis of the data from volunteer and cadaver experiments indicates that equivalent moment at the occipital condyles is the critical injury parameter in extension and in flexion. Static voluntary levels of 17.5 ft lb in extension and 26 ft lb in flexion were attained. A maximum dynamic value of 35 ft lb in extension was reached without injury. In hyperflexion, the chin-chest reaction changes the loading condition at the occipital condyles which resulted in a maximum equivalent moment of 65 ft lb without injury. Noninjurious neck shear and axial forces of 190 lb and 250 lb are recommended based on the static strength data obtained on the volunteers. Neck response envelopes for performance of mechanical necks are given for the extension and flexion modes of the neck.
Biomechanics of Impact Injury and Injury Tolerances of the Head-Neck Complex-PT-43, Human Subject Crash Testing-PT-134, Hybrid III: The First Human-Like Crash Test Dummy-PT-44, Neck Injury Biomechanics-PT-141, SAE 1971 Transactions-V80-A
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