This paper attempts to serve three purposes: 1. To summarize the open scientific literature on muscular force applicable to pedals, and on the efficiency of foot motions on or between pedals depending on the body support and the body posture of the seated operator. 2. To discuss the applicability of such studies in automobile (or other equipment) design, especially to the design, selection, and arrangement of foot-operated controls. 3. To point out that for most conventional vehicles and equipment, modes of seating, and of pedal arrangement and operation follow largely common experience and tradition, and only partly scientific findings. For new man-machine systems, new solutions seem possible.