Engine technology has played a major role in establishing today's modern commercial transport aircraft as a vital part of the world transportation system. This paper discusses the significant advancements that have been made in air transportation and the contribution the engine has made to these advancements. Potential future improvements that could benefit the customer, community and operator are examined and new transport aircraft and engine possibilities indicated. The concern over the social and ecological compatibility of air transportation with the community will be a significant factor in future transport aircraft and engine design requirements. The impact of these demands on new engines and advanced technology requirements will be discussed.