Car Crash Collision Types and Passenger Injuries in Dependency upon Car Construction (Field Studies of the German Automobile Insurance Companies) 720968

In order to contribute to the improvement of traffic safety, the German Motor Traffic Insurers investigated 100,000 accidents in 1969. In dependency upon crash conditions, injuries were related to clearly described car models. The method used is commented upon in detail.
This paper deals with the representative material on 10,271 car crashes with passenger injuries. It is shown what types of impact are found in real-life collisions and at what speeds they occur. Facts influencing accident severity are discussed.
It turned out that car crashes occur mostly at a collision speed below 60 km/h. Frequently, serious injuries are sustained in cases with moderately severe car damage. This fact is proved by fractures of the skull base, of the cervical spine, of the sternum, of the pelvis, and of the lower extremities, as well as eye injuries. An important percentage of casualties occur in average crash severity. Influencing facts resulting from the car construction generating these kinds of injury are discussed.
Effectiveness and possibilities of safety measures, such as safety belts, head restraints, and airbags, were studied with the aid of real-life collisions. It turned out that safety belts today offer the best protective effect.
The present data on types of accident and correlating car damage and injuries furnish indications with regard to realistic experimental car tests.


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