Two forms of energy absorption are discussed in this paper. The first, mechanical reinforcement, is a prototype part, a guided sliding tube in a box-like structure, which acts as an additional buffer attached to the front frame extension of a small automobile. The second form, foam injection, is applied through hollow elements of sheet steel < 1 mm thick injected with rigid polyurethane foam.
Laboratory tests have shown that it is unreasonable to consider impact speeds of more than 55 km/h for a loaded small vehicle, even after modification and reinforcement. Higher impact speeds would increase both weight and vehicle price, and increase occupant injury risk due to high deceleration within the vehicle.