Results of a brief study program to devise and evaluate new structural materials and concepts for a subsonic, transport-type aircraft are presented. Comparisons of several wing concepts to the state-of-the-art baseline concept indicate a weight saving of 10%, but with corresponding total cost increases of 50-75%. One fuselage concept indicates a 7% weight saving with a 5% total cost saving. Corresponding aircraft performance payoffs with and without resizing are also established. The overall payoffs are somewhat nominal, based on the new concept impact on participating structure only. Both baseline and new concept analyses are based on a common set of requirements for ultimate strength, fatigue life, damage tolerance, and flutter rigidity. The study is directed to metallic concepts.