Anthropometric Golden Shell Models and Their Description by Stereometric Measurements 740116
The Crash Test Dummy Task Force of the Human Factors Engineering Subcommittee (the SAE Automotive Safety Committee) during the 1968 meetings decided to establish master models of seated human body forms, representing the 95th and 50th percentile male and 5th percentile female United States adult size population. A seating posture and basic measurements were adopted for sculpturing of the models which, after being verified by anthropometrists, were reproduced in fiberglass gold-painted shells, thereafter named “golden shells.” Duplicates of the golden shells were made, having humanlike body construction, for the purpose of establishing the weights and mass distribution of the models. The golden shells were measured stereometrically, which yields a quantification of body shape and size in the form of point coordinates in three dimensional space and cross-sectional profiles throughout the body. Thus, the point coordinates constitute a quantitative record of each master model's spatial configuration and the graphical output comprises a set of templates for physically reconstructing or verifying reconstruction of any of the models. The accuracy of stereometric measurements is comparable with the accuracy obtained by conventional methods. The procedures employed in obtaining stereometric measurements of the master models and use of these data for extraction of desired information are described in this paper.