This paper opens with a brief review of service conditions satisfied by amphibian operation such as: increased single-engine safety due to water areas available for emergency landings plus protection of a rugged hull bottom; sport, business, and pleasure flying; and utility transportation into undeveloped areas. It presents basic design parameters and analyses of operational problems peculiar to the amphibian, with emphasis placed upon the flying boat type of hull.
Design considerations include wing layout, engine placement and power requirements, hull shape plus beam loading and water trim limits, spray effects, landing gear arrangements, flight stability problems, docking and handling procedures, and brief market specifications for two amphibians. The study concludes with a discussion of converting existing landplanes into the amphibian configuration.
It is the purpose of this brief paper to outline basic design parameters essential for an amphibian satisfying FAR Part 23 requirements as well as the practical considerations of flight handling, water safety, and economic operation.