The current federal accident data collection system is inadequate. It does not produce representative data essential for answering cause-and-effect questions concerning accidents, injuries, and fatalities, and it does not produce adequate data essential for conducting cost-benefit analyses of changes in vehicle designs, highway designs, or driver licensing policies. A proposed federal data collection system (SIR) can solve those problems at a total cost of about $6 million a year. The SIR system would include 30 investigating teams precisely located throughout the U.S., and would include a Sampling program, an In-depth program, and a Rapid-response program. The sooner this system is established, the sooner government and industry will begin to obtain accurate and reliable answers to pressing questions in the field of highway safety.