To characterize exhaust emissions from water-cooled 2-stroke outboard motors (the predominant type), four new motors were tested on dynamometer stands. The engines ranged from 4-65 hp in size, and operating conditions were chosen along lines of simulated boat loading. All the measurements were taken at steady-state conditions.Emission concentrations were measured in raw exhaust gas and after the gases had been bubbled through water in a specially constructed tank. Constituents measured included hydrocarbons, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, O2, light hydrocarbons, and aldehydes. Emissions of sulfur oxides (SOx) were estimated on the basis of fuel consumed, and all the exhaust emissions data were used with available information on population and usage of motors to estimate exhaust emission factors and national exhaust emissions impact.This study did not address the fate of pollutants in either air or water as a function of residence time, nor did it include any assessment of environmental effects due to outboard emissions.