Results of 49 Cadaver Tests Simulating Frontal Collision of Front Seat Passengers 741182
By an acceleration track operated through a falling weight (9, 11*) with a crash velocity of 50 km/h and a stopping distance of about 40 cm-corresponding to the crease region of many automobiles-the effect of three-point-retractor belts on 30 fresh cadavers and of two-point belts with kneebar on 19 fresh cadavers had been tested. The age of the cadavers ranged from 12-82 years. Qualitatively, almost all injuries known under the term “seat belt syndrome” could be reproduced. The dependence of the degree of injury in regard to the age was quite evident. It can be expected that persons over 40 years of age will suffer the same dangerous injuries as the tested cadavers, caused by the diagonal belts if the above mentioned crash conditions are existent. This will apply to both belt systems tested by us. The shoulder-belt-forces of all of our tests were between 340 kp and 1000 kp, but more serious injuries of the cadavers of older persons could be observed. To reduce the risk of injury, improvements of the now used restraint systems are necessary. To reach this aim, constructive changes on automobiles and seats have also become necessary to be carried out.
G. Schmidt, D. Kallieris, J. Barz, R. Mattern
University of Heidelberg, West Germany
18th Stapp Car Crash Conference (1974)
Biomechanics of Impact Injury and Injury Tolerances of the Thorax-Shoulder Complex-PT-45, SAE 1974 Transactions-V83-A, Biomechanics of Impact Injuries and Injury Tolerances of the Abdomen, Lumbar Spine, and Pelvis Complex-PT-47