Hybrid front end car design provides a straight forward approach to achievement of compatibility during crashes between the smallest and largest cars as well as all other sizes between. Compatibility means optimal conditions for occupant survival in frontal, side and rear collisions through a broad range of closure speeds and potential obliquities.
Hybrid front ends consist of designs producing primary load paths through short stroke, self force regulating hydraulic cylinders in series with crushable structure. Conservative analytic approach demonstrates compatibility in head-on closures of at least 70 mph between a 1500 lb car and any other heavier car. This compatibility is attained with only a 29 1/2 in crush of the small car.