The factors affecting noise from small propeller driven airplanes are reviewed to quantify their affects where possible, and to indicate the potential for noise reduction. The main sources of external noise are noted to be the propellers and engines; the airframe being of less importance for both aural detection and community annoyance. Propeller noise is a strong function of tip speed and is affected adversely by non-uniform inflows. Reciprocating engine exhausts are noisier than those of comparably rated turboshaft engines, but their noise can be reduced by the use of flight certified exhaust mufflers.Presently, there are no generally accepted engineering methods for development of optimized propellers and exhaust muffler designs from weight and performance penalty standpoints. Flight demonstration results, however, suggest that required noise reductions for future certification should be possible with potentially small penalties.