Materials and energy are the lifeblood of our industrialized economy. Annually the United States uses over 4 billion tons of mineral materials and fuels. Domestic processed materials of mineral origin and energy are valued at more than $210 billion annually, derived largely from domestic sources, supplemented by imports. We now find increasing competition in world markets when it comes to acquiring needed raw materials, while at the same time we also find strenuous competition in selling many manufactured articles. Increased efficiency in our mining, minerals, metal, mineral reclamation, energy, and transportation industries requires accelerated development of new and improved technology.