A review of the existing mathematical models of a car occupant in a rear-end crash reveals that existing models inadequately describe the kinematics of the occupant and cannot demonstrate the injury mechanisms involved. Most models concentrate on head and neck motion and have neglected to study the interaction of the occupant with the seat back, seat cushion, and restraint systems. Major deficiencies are the inability to simulate the torso sliding up the seat back and the absence of the thoracic and lumbar spine as deformable, load transmitting members.The paper shows the results of a 78 degree-of-freedom model of the spine, head, and pelvis which has already been validated in +Gz and -Gx acceleration directions. It considers automotive-type restraint systems, seat back, and seat cushions, and the torso is free to slide up the seat back. Results of simulation runs show a good correlation with the existing data and experimental cadaveric runs made with a high seat back (or head restraint) and low seat back. The effect of seat-back stiffness and the restraint system on the response of the head and spine is studied.