The source of ply steer in radial carcass tires is out-of-plane bending to in-plane shear coupling in the tread band portion of the tire laminate. Laminate design controls the coupling and, therefore, controls ply steer. Design control is discussed and demonstrated through examples that eliminated ply steer.
Aligning torque static phase is introduced. It conceptually simplifies vehicle pull problems.
Ply steer in bias carcass tires is briefly discussed.