The study relates air/fuel ratio, fuel injection timing, and engine speed to exhaust smoke levels and performance of the diesel engine. Additional data were obtained under supercharged and turbocharged inlet air conditions to investigate the applicability of the derived relationships under these conditions. Limited data using a variance in fuel type were obtained.Insight into the basic mechanism of smoke formation in diesel engines was gained. The relative percentages of fuel injected before ignition (i.e., premixed fuel) and after initiation of combustion (i.e., unmixed diffusion burning fuel) were found to be extremely significant in determining smoke levels. A smoke factor (the ratio of equivalence ratio in the combustion chamber at initial ignition to overall equivalence ratio) was formulated and found to be useful in predicting smoke phenomena in diesel engines.