Two series of experiments were conducted to reduce the uncertainties concerning the Space Shuttle payload bay acoustic environment. Tests using a one-fifth scale model showed large changes in level below 125 Hz with the introduction of typical payloads. The changes were associated with particular acoustic modal behavior and were sensitive to the type of acoustic excitation. Another series of experiments evaluated the noise reduction of the first orbiter vehicle (OV-101). The results showed consistently greater noise reduction for grazing excitation than for diffuse excitation. The results were extrapolated to OV-102 using mass law relations and acceleration measurements.