A procedure to analyze and design adiabatic diesel engine components is developed. The analytical basis for the procedure is presented. An experimental study of related thermal boundary conditions in the combustion chamber is conducted. Mean effective gas temperatures as high as 2200°F are measured. A new adiabatic diesel piston, using a ceramic top, is designed and demonstrated using the procedure. Initial engine testing of the piston is encouraging, with full design power being achieved. The piston is considered the critical component in the overall development of an adiabatic diesel engine.