Cathodic electrodeposition was successfully introduced to the general U.S. industry in 1971. Several properties specific to the automotive industry were required before it could be introduced to the automotive industry in 1976.Cathodic electrodeposition is capable of producing superior corrosion resistance over steel and other substrates. For the automotive industry, additional characteristics of high throw-power, lower curing schedules, long term stability, and others were necessary for this paint to be satisfactory to this industry.Many equipment requirements of Cathodic paint are similar or identical to those of Anodic paint, but there are also some specific differences. Operation of Cathodic systems are also similar in many respects to Anodic systems but control parameters such as pH, MEQ, voltage, and conductivity are different. These differences in the equipment and control of Cathodic systems are related to characteristics of Cathodic chemistry.