Considerable insight into alternatives to petroleum as fuels for earthmoving and other off-highway vehicles can be gained from investigations related to highway vehicles. At the same time, off-highway equipment has the potential of greater flexibility in choice of fuels because of simpler fuel logistics. Uncertainties in both petroleum resources and alternative supplies are reviewed, and implications for the remainder of this century are highlighted. However, technology to make alcohols is well established and a multiplicity of resources is available. Thus, the technical benefits and problems of using alcohols as a petroleum extender or substitute are detailed.