The effect of bore-to-stroke ratio (B/S) on indicated specific fuel consumption (ISFC) and emissions of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, single-cylinder engine was studied while holding compression ratio and bore diameter constant. As B/S was increased from 1.1 to 3.3, both ISFC and hydrocarbon emissions increased significantly. Increased cylinder heat loss and, to a lesser extent, increased combustion duration were the principal causes of the ISFC increase. Increased surface-to-volume ratio was the principal cause of the increase in hydrocarbon emissions. The influence of combustion chamber modifications on these effects was investigated.