The economics of commercial transport depends upon vehicle parameters such as weight and drivetrains and upon driving methods and road design. Energy consumption is one aspect of the total transportational costs. The paper investigates these costs and suggests areas of improvement.The general design and individual components of the engine and drivetrain are studied in terms of energy efficiency. Then characteristics of the vehicle as a whole are analyzed (weight, rolling resistance). Driving characteristics of the operator and the influence of traffic are also described. Subsequently, the stress loading of roadways is discussed. The evaluation of these different sub-topics leads to a compilation of potential cost reductions for various categories of modifications of the vehicle-driver-roadway system (e.g., changes in engines, transmissions, permissible weights, permissible axle loadings, aerodynamic spoilers, engine cooling, tires, etc.). Although theoretically the greatest potential cost reduction requires a radically improved control of traffic, increases in loaded-vehicle weights represent the most realistic means of cost reduction. The study shows how this increase can be accomplished without increased deterioration of roadways.