The US Army was convinced as early as 1941 that a composition type antifreeze was desirable. The Army's needs are much more complex, and operating conditions more severe than the individual automobile owner. Army vehicles must be in the best possible operating condition at all times. These vehicles may be sent to almost any part of the world, and have to be combat ready on short notice. Operating conditions can be severe, requiring both highway and off highway operation. Heat loads on the vehicles' cooling system vary depending upon the loads being carried and the terrain over which they are required to travel. Indiscriminate use of commercial antifreeze-coolants could result in cooling system failure. Mixtures of two good antifreeze formulations could have a direct effect on the corrosion protection of cooling system metals. In combat situations this could be disasterous.