Over the last century, petroleum has become the major source of energy for transportation and the raw material for petrochemical products. As a result, there are tens of thousands of experts who support the technology and contribute to the economy of this country. For people who were born, brought up, educated, and matured in a climate of using and depending on petroleum, it is most logical to think in terms of the resources, processes and products that are used to produce petroleum. If the resulting experience, knowledge and expertise is put to use, this “petroleum mentality” can be a tremendous asset in our search for and the development of new energy sources. However, only a small fraction of this pool of know-how is now being applied to new energy. Obstacles result from assuming too much and from being too comfortable and/or myoptic about the status, the potential, and the needs regarding petroleum substitutes. Open mindedness, proper attention, and rational consideration can and should change this to a positive approach where the know-how can be far more effective.