The objectives of the experimental study were to investigate methods and materials that might be used to retrofit protective materials for older model school bus seats, modesty panels, and stanchions. Laboratory tests were conducted under FMVSS 222 guidelines on these bus components, under conditions with and without commercial retrofit materials, using the head and knee forms. Additional tests were conducted on five potential materials that might be used in retrofit situations. Conclusions from 390 tests were that: (1)The dynamic portions of FMVSS 222 could be applied to older model school buses for retrofit applications. (2)The seat back and modesty panel rails are the most dangerous objects for potential facial injuries. (3)Head concussion injuries do not appear to be a problem. (4)Commercial materials are available that can be used to minimize the facial type injuries.