Tests made with a converted Audi show that a “45 km (27 mi) range” vehicle can be driven over 100 km (60 mi) in a day if the batteries are charged when the vehicle is not in use (such charging is called “biberonnage” by the French). The tests were conducted in an urban area, with the vehicle making frequent short trips, characteristic of urban driving missions. Advantage is taken of the fact that during such driving, the effective speed is only 30 km/h (20 mph).
Graphs are presented for calculating the vehicle range in a given number of operating hours, with different assumed average speeds, and different assumed battery charging rates. It is shown how a range of 160 km (100 mi) per day can be achieved with existing batteries, employing biberonnage.
Biberonnage allows the use of a battery pack lighter than normally employed, thus reducing vehicle weight, initial and operating costs, and energy consumption (Wh/km). With biberonnage, electric cars can be introduced in large numbers rapidly. We need not wait for the “100 miles range” battery to make the EV commercially acceptable.