This paper addresses an ongoing research program that describes and provides guidance on the effectiveness, costs, advantages and disadvantages of simulation training for Air Force flying personnel. In the current climate of drastically reduced fuel availability, alternatives must be available to train aircrew members operational mission essential skills. Air Force use of simulation has increased over the past few years. Such a trend is expected to accelerate in the future. In the past, the majority of R&D funding has gone towards development and improvements in simulation engineering technology. Consequently, there have been numerous improvements, however, less attention has been directed towards the ways these improvements could be used by operational training personnel. As a result, the current data base is insufficient to allow making tradeoff decisions concerning training methods, effectiveness and costs. Such issues are addressed by this study and are reported here. Specific variables that affect the successful utilization of simulation devices are also discussed, as are plans for necessary follow-on research.