1980-06-01

Extenders and Diluents for Middle Distillates-A Preliminary Evaluation 800831

Recent studies have demonstrated that conventional compression-ignition engines, with fairly minor changes, can operate on lower grade fuel oils. The present paper outlines some experiences with middle distillates adulterated with readily available organic liquids as a means of increasing the overall inventory and thereby extending the availability of natural crudes.
It is shown that 25% substitution with various shale, coal or vegetation derived products is normally feasible. In some instances it was possible to operate totally on the alternate fuel. This total substitution is not economically viable at present, however, since extenders and diluents tested were up to one order of magnitude more expensive than conventional fuels. The greatest advantage accrued by combining the widest cut fuel oil obtainable with the highest C/H ratio diluent tolerated by the engine. Under these conditions the effective mileage gain for each barrel of crude oil could exceed 35% for a cost penalty of some $2/barrel.
The shift in overall C/H ratio generated by dilution constrained smoke-limited power. Exhaust analyses, as a result, showed a conflict between energy conservation and environmental protection needs with regards to carbon monoxide and particulates emissions. The overall energy conversion efficiency was crucially dependent upon the prime mover chosen and overall results in the range 4 – 30% were estimated.
Limited reliability and durability data of engines operating on diluted fuels is presented.

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