1981-10-01

Comparative Studies of Neck Injuries of Car Occupants in Frontal Collisions in the United States and in the Federal Republic of Germany 811030

Parallel and coordinated accident studies were conducted in the United States and in the Federal Republic of Germany to determine the extent, the level, and the comparability of neck injuries in automotive accidents as reported in the National Crash Severity Study (NCSS), and the Association of German Automobile Insurers (HUK-Verband) files.
To determine the comparability of the two data sets, three primary evaluation criteria were used: 1) the distribution of overall injuries by AIS level by various occupant parameters, 2) the risk of occupant AIS injury vs. delta V, and 3) the distribution of neck injuries by AIS for restrained vs unrestrained occupants.
Frequencies and severities of neck injuries in car accidents were compared in parallel layouts between the two data sets in frontal, side and rear impact modes. In further breakdown the frontal impact file was separated into driver/passenger and male/female categories. Accident direction and intensity as well as occupant parameters were investigated for their effects on neck injury severity.
Neck injury severity distributions and types of injuries were compared with and without head contact for belted and unbelted occupants. Vehicle body components responsible for neck injuries were identified. Special cases were selected from the accident files of both data sets to illustrate the effects of the dominant accident injury modes resulting from inertial and direct contact loads. Countermeasures to minimize neck injuries were hypothesized.

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