National Annual Accident Statistics for pedestrians and cyclists are presented along with a breakout of injuries matched with vehicle impact location and other causation factors. Results of full-scale accident simulation tests using surrogates to investigate the relationship between impact response and injury severity for several body regions is presented. Accident investigation data, full-scale accident simulation research test data, and computer modeling data aimed at determining the effects of vehicle front surface structure geometry on pedestrian injury patterns and severity are presented. The general approach to pedestrian injury mitigation through vehicle modification is discussed. A discussion of motorcyclist injury patterns is also presented.