This paper reviews the development of the two-piece die cast aluminum single-plane intake manifold concept at Ford, with emphasis on manifold joining. Three joining methods, mechanical fasteners plus sealant, epoxy bonding, and welding were evaluated. All three methods were tested successfully using I-4, V-6 and V-8 engines. The results of a cost study indicated that in-air electron beam (AEB) welding would be the most economical joining method. Production of an EB welded die cast aluminum intake manifold was initiated Job 1, 1981 for the 1.6L I-4 engine.