Submarining Injuries of 3 Pt. Belted Occupants in Frontal Collisions – Description, Mechanisms and Protection 821158

Accidentological studies show, firstly, what kind of injuries are sustained by seat-belt wearers in frontal collisions, to abdomen, lumbar spine and lower members and, second, how to determine their frequencies and severities. Corresponding data are presented.
Then, a synthesis is made in which the results of extensive cadaver testing more than 300 human subjects-are examined with particular emphasis on the abdominal injuries, and on the association of injuries, such as lumbar spine injuries. Causation is particularly looked at. This experimental survey is completed by the results of specialized testing in abdominal tolerance when submarining occurs.
These two surveys enable the development of protection.
Finally, former attempts for defining an abdominal protection criterion are reviewed and a final definition for such a criterion is presented and justified.


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