Highlights of a study conducted by Lockheed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are presented. The potential benefits are based on realistic advanced aluminum alloy property goals considering powder metallurgy (PM) and ingot metallurgy (IM) technologies. The property goals were established in consultation with the Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa) to maximize aircraft systems effectiveness of a 1990 in-service (IOC) transport aircraft. The performance and economic benefits of incorporating advanced alloys in these future advanced technology transport aircraft are summarized. Key issues requiring attention in an advanced aluminum alloy and applications technology development are presented.