The paper describes a method for optimal wheel design and shows a systematic procedure for determining acting and allowable stresses in the wheel. The traditional wheel fatigue test procedures are criticized because no definite relationship to customer service exists in most cases. The basic design concept, that dimensions should be based on service stresses and allowable stresses is strictly adhered to in the approach and is accomplished by providing a method for simulating service loads in the laboratory and by determining allowable stresses by fatigue testing of representative wheel areas. The operational wheel loads as well as frequency distribution of service stresses are discussed.A Flat Base Wheel Roll Test Facility for determining wheel stresses is presented. Also described is a new Biaxial Wheel Durability Test Machine which provides improved simulation of wheel loading conditions and makes it possible to test the total wheel in a single procedure.