This paper addresses the relationship between vehicle rear lighting and signaling systems and probability of accident involvement. All classes of vehicles and all aspects of rear lighting and signaling systems as specified in current standards are considered in terms of the informational needs of following drivers.
Relevant vehicle, driver, and environmental characteristics are identified, and their frequency of occurrence and relationship to accidents (or pertinent proxies) discussed whenever such information is available. The bulk of the report is devoted to reviewing, summarizing, and integrating the large body of data concerning vehicle rear lighting and signaling systems, including engineering analyses and other analytical studies, as well as experimental data from laboratory, simulation and field studies.
The major output of this review and summary is the identification of: 1) the major problems associated with vehicle rear lighting and signaling systems, 2) mitigating concepts, including a discussion of how these concepts should be evaluated, and 3) considerations for the future attention of the research community interested in improving vehicle rear lighting and signaling systems.